When Malignant or cancer cells are formed in the tissues of the Anus of a person then he/she is diagnosed with anal cancer. The risk of getting Anal Cancer increases when you are infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Other factors that cause Anal cancer are having many sexual partners, having anal sex, age being older than 50 years, anal getting swollen or there being anal redness and soreness frequently.
Anal Cancer patients usually have no symptoms if the disease but when there is bleeding from Anus then that is considered as the first sign of the disease.
Patients having symptoms like itching in the rectal area, a lump near the opening of the anal, unusual discharge from the anus, a feeling of fullness or pain in the anal area, some changes in bowel movements or narrowing of stool –cancer conditions like anal fissures, anal warts or haemorrhoids. Then too it is advisable to get one self-checked by a doctor to find the exact cause and its treatment, if required.
In order to diagnose if a person is suffering from Anal Cancer physical examination of the body is done to check the symptoms of the disease. Also an examination of the anus and rectum called Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)is carried out wherein the doctor or nurse wearing lubricated gloves puts in a finger into the lower part of the rectum to check if any uncommon lump is felt. Other examinations for Anal Cancer detection are Anoscopy, Proctoscopy, Endo-anal or endorectal ultrasound or Biopsy.
Whether there is a chance of recovery for a patient suffering from Anal Cancer depends on the sizeof the tumour, where in the anus is the tumour or it needs tobe checked whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes.
To check if treatment is possible of Anal Cancer depends on the stage of the cancer, has the patient got Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and it needs to be checked if cancer still remains or again recurs after the initial treatment is done.