Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma
Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma, childhood cancer is a rare type of brain tumour which occurs before the age of 2 years. It is a type of glioma which begins in the glial cells, which surround neurons and provide support for and insulation between them in the central nervous system.
Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma is made up of more than one type of cell and may have cysts also.
A tumour is formed when healthy cells change and grow out of control to form a mass. Tumours may be cancerous or non cancerous. A cancerous tumour grows and spread to other parts of the body while a non cancerous tumour grows but will not spread.
General symptoms of Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma are:
- Paralysis of a part of the body
- Sudden involuntary movements of a person’s muscles
- Increase in head size during infancy
- Bulging fontanelle, which is the infant’s "soft spot" on the head
- Abnormal or decreased sensation
- Numbness or weakness
- Loss of muscle control
- Increased or decreased muscle tone
No Symptoms and signs may be seen at times in Children with Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma or at times these symptoms may be for another medical condition and not a brain tumour.
To diagnose Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma many tests are performed. Doctors perform tests even to find out which treatment would be best for the patient. Tests required to be carried out are chosen by the doctors based on the child’s age, medical condition, signs and symptoms, type of tumour and the result of earlier medical tests. Further Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Biopsy are carried out, as per requirement.
The most common treatment for Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma in a child is surgery. Surgery to the brain needs removal of part of the skull. This procedure is called a craniotomy. After the tumour is removed by the surgeon, the opening in the skull is again covered by the patient’s own bone. With an advance in the medical studies doctors now use cortical mapping to identify certain areas of the brain that control the languages, motor skills and senses. Also better imaging tests allow surgeons better tools to plan and perform the surgery.
In case tumour is located in such places in the brain where surgery is not feasible then Chemotherapy is done.
After treatment of either surgery or chemotherapy palliative or supportive treatment is given to the child to help him or her with the side effects they have to face.